Metformin is Associated with Reduced COVID-19 Severity in Patients with Prediabetes

3 weeks 1 day ago
CONCLUSIONS: Metformin was associated with less severe COVID-19 in patients with prediabetes, as seen in previous studies of patients with diabetes. This is an important finding, since prediabetes affects between 19 and 38% of the US population, and COVID-19 is an ongoing public health emergency. Further observational and prospective studies will clarify the relationship between metformin and COVID-19 severity in patients with prediabetes, and whether metformin usage may reduce COVID-19...
Lauren E Chan

Risk Factors Associated with Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 in an EHR Cohort: A National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C) Analysis as part of the NIH RECOVER program

1 month ago
CONCLUSIONS: This national study identified important risk factors for PASC such as middle age, severe COVID-19 disease, and specific comorbidities. Further clinical and epidemiological research is needed to better understand underlying mechanisms and the potential role of vaccines and therapeutics in altering PASC course.
Elaine Hill

In Vivo and In Vitro Studies of Cigarette Smoke Effects on Innate Responses to Influenza Virus: A Matter of Models?

1 month 1 week ago
Cigarette smoke (CS) is a significant public health problem and a leading risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the developed world. Respiratory viral infections, such as the influenza A virus (IAV), are associated with acute exacerbations of COPD and are more severe in cigarette smokers. To fight against viral infection, the host has developed an innate immune system, which has complicated mechanisms regulating the expression and activation of...
Wenxin Wu

MedML: Fusing medical knowledge and machine learning models for early pediatric COVID-19 hospitalization and severity prediction

1 month 1 week ago
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused devastating economic and social disruption. This has led to a nationwide call for models to predict hospitalization and severe illness in patients with COVID-19 to inform the distribution of limited healthcare resources. To address this challenge, we propose a machine learning model, MedML, to conduct the hospitalization and severity prediction for the pediatric population using electronic health records. MedML extracts the most predictive features based on...
Junyi Gao

Urinary Metabolites of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Firefighters: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

2 months 1 week ago
Firefighters are intermittently exposed to complex, mixed pollutants in random settings. Of those pollutants, PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) are the most commonly studied and best understood. PAH exposure can occur via multiple routes; therefore, the levels of hydroxylated metabolites of PAHs in urine have been used as a biomonitoring tool for risk assessment. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature to estimate the levels of urinary hydroxylated PAH (OHPAH)...
Jooyeon Hwang

Delineating the Clinical Phenotype of Patients With the c.629C>G, p.Pro210Arg Mutation in Peripherin-2

2 months 2 weeks ago
CONCLUSIONS: Rod and cone sensitivities were decreased in subjects with the P210R mutation in PRPH2. There was scotomatous vision loss that occurred within the macula, likely due to atrophy that occurs after drusen have formed and have begun to resolve. This suggests that although rod and cone photoreceptors are dependent on PRPH2, preventing blindness in this specific subgroup of patients could involve therapeutics that impede the formation or lifecycle of drusen.
Shannon M Conley

Assessing urinary phenol and paraben mixtures in pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus: A case-control study

2 months 2 weeks ago
Prior studies have identified the associations between environmental phenol and paraben exposures and increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but no study addressed these exposures as mixtures. As methods have emerged to better assess exposures to multiple chemicals, our study aimed to apply Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) to evaluate the association between phenol and paraben mixtures and GDM. This study included 64 GDM cases and 237 obstetric patient controls from the...
Wei-Jen Chen

Breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 Infection Outcomes in Vaccinated Patients with Chronic Liver Disease and Cirrhosis: A National COVID Cohort Collaborative Study

2 months 3 weeks ago
CONCLUSIONS: In this N3C Data Enclave study, breakthrough infection rates were similar amongst CLD patients with and without cirrhosis. Full vaccination was associated with a 66% reduction in risk of all-cause mortality among CLD patients with cirrhosis after infection. These results provide an additional impetus for increasing vaccination uptake among patients with severe liver disease.
Jin Ge

Validation of a High Flow Rate Puff Topography System Designed for Measurement of Sub-Ohm, Third Generation Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems

2 months 3 weeks ago
There are few known puff topography devices designed solely for gathering electronic cigarette puff topography information, and none made for high-powered sub-ohm devices. Ten replicate Bernoulli flow cells were designed and 3D printed. The relationship between square root of pressure difference and flow rate was determined across 0-70 L/min. One representative flow cell was used to estimate puff volume and flow rate under six simulated puffing regimes (0.710 L, 2.000 L and 3.000 L, at low and...
Evan Floyd

The promise of precision medicine in rheumatology

2 months 4 weeks ago
Systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs) exhibit extensive heterogeneity in clinical presentation, disease course, and treatment response. Therefore, precision medicine - whereby treatment is tailored according to the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of an individual patient at a specific time - represents the 'holy grail' in SARD clinical care. Current strategies include treat-to-target therapies and autoantibody testing for patient stratification; however, these are far from optimal....
Joel M Guthridge

Pre-Clinical Autoimmunity in Lupus Relatives: Self-Reported Questionnaires and Immune Dysregulation Distinguish Relatives Who Develop Incomplete or Classified Lupus From Clinically Unaffected Relatives and Unaffected, Unrelated Individuals

3 months 2 weeks ago
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is propelled by pathogenic autoantibody (AutoAb) and immune pathway dysregulation. Identifying populations at risk of reaching classified SLE is essential to curtail inflammatory damage. Lupus blood relatives (Rel) have an increased risk of developing SLE. We tested factors to identify Rel at risk of developing incomplete lupus (ILE) or classified SLE vs. clinically unaffected Rel and healthy controls (HC), drawing from two unique, well characterized lupus...
Melissa E Munroe
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