Outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease and Cirrhosis: a N3C Study

1 week 3 days ago
Jin Ge
CONCLUSIONS: In this study of ∼221,000 nationally-representative, diverse, and gender-balanced CLD patients; we found SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with cirrhosis was associated with 2.38-times mortality hazard, and the presence of cirrhosis among CLD patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 was associated with 3.31-times mortality hazard. These results provide an additional impetus for increasing vaccination uptake and further research regarding immune responses to vaccines in patients with severe...

Demonstrating an approach for evaluating synthetic geospatial and temporal epidemiologic data utility: Results from analyzing >1.8 million SARS-CoV-2 tests in the United States National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C)

2 weeks ago
Jason A Thomas
CONCLUSION: In general, synthetic data were successfully used to analyze geospatial and temporal trends. Analyses using small sample sizes or populations were limited, in part due to purposeful data label suppression -an attribute disclosure countermeasure. Users should consider data fitness for use in these cases.

Clinical Characterization and Prediction of Clinical Severity of SARS-CoV-2 Infection Among US Adults Using Data From the US National COVID Cohort Collaborative

2 weeks 3 days ago
Tellen D Bennett
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This cohort study found that COVID-19 mortality decreased over time during 2020 and that patient demographic characteristics and comorbidities were associated with higher clinical severity. The machine learning models accurately predicted ultimate clinical severity using commonly collected clinical data from the first 24 hours of a hospital admission.

Functional Evaluation of Splicing for Variants of Uncertain Significance in Patients with Inherited Retinal Diseases

4 weeks ago
Margarita Mauro-Herrera
Inherited retinal diseases (IRD) comprise a heterogeneous set of clinical and genetic disorders that lead to blindness. Given the emerging opportunities in precision medicine and gene therapy, it has become increasingly important to determine whether DNA variants with uncertain significance (VUS) are responsible for patients' IRD. This research was performed to assess the functional consequence of six VUS identified in patients with IRD. Clinical assessments included an ophthalmic examination,...

Sleep deprivation alters task-related changes in functional connectivity of the frontal cortex: A near-infrared spectroscopy study

1 month 1 week ago
Peter Mukli
Sleep deprivation (SD) is known to be associated with decreased cognitive performance; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. As interactions between distinct brain regions depend on mental state, functional brain networks established by these connections typically show a reorganization during task. Hence, analysis of functional connectivity (FC) could reveal the task-related change in the examined frontal brain networks. Our objective was to assess the impact of SD on static...

Outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease and Cirrhosis: a N3C Study

1 month 2 weeks ago
Jin Ge
CONCLUSIONS: In this study of nearly 220,000 CLD patients, we found SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with cirrhosis was associated with 2.43-times mortality hazard, and the presence of cirrhosis among CLD patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 were associated with 3.39-times mortality hazard. Compared to previous studies, our use of a nationally-representative, diverse, and gender-balanced dataset enables wide generalizability of these findings.

Immune Response to <em>Enterococcus gallinarum</em> in Lupus Patients Is Associated With a Subset of Lupus-Associated Autoantibodies

1 month 2 weeks ago
Harini Bagavant
Interactions between gut microbes and the immune system influence autoimmune disorders like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Recently, Enterococcus gallinarum, a gram-positive commensal gut bacterium, was implicated as a candidate pathobiont in SLE. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of E. gallinarum exposure on clinical parameters of SLE. Since circulating IgG antibodies to whole bacteria have been established as a surrogate marker for bacterial exposure, anti-E....

Outcomes of COVID-19 in Patients With Cancer: Report From the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C)

1 month 3 weeks ago
Noha Sharafeldin
CONCLUSION: Using N3C, we assembled the largest nationally representative cohort of patients with cancer and COVID-19 to date. We identified demographic and clinical factors associated with increased all-cause mortality in patients with cancer. Full characterization of the cohort will provide further insights into the effects of COVID-19 on cancer outcomes and the ability to continue specific cancer treatments.

Increased cognitive workload evokes greater neurovascular coupling responses in healthy young adults

2 months 1 week ago
Tamas Csipo
Understanding how the brain allocates resources to match the demands of active neurons under physiological conditions is critically important. Increased metabolic demands of active brain regions are matched with hemodynamic responses known as neurovascular coupling (NVC). Several methods that allow noninvasive assessment of brain activity in humans detect NVC and early detection of NVC impairment may serve as an early marker of cognitive impairment. Therefore, non-invasive NVC assessments may...

Health Risks of Structural Firefighters from Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

3 months ago
Jooyeon Hwang
Firefighters have an elevated risk of cancer, which is suspected to be caused by occupational and environmental exposure to fire smoke. Among many substances from fire smoke contaminants, one potential source of toxic exposure is polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The goal of this paper is to identify the association between PAH exposure levels and contributing risk factors to derive best estimates of the effects of exposure on structural firefighters' working environment in fire. We...

Dietary Strawberries Improve Cardiometabolic Risks in Adults with Obesity and Elevated Serum LDL Cholesterol in a Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial

3 months ago
Arpita Basu
Background and aims: Dietary berries, such as strawberries, are rich in bioactive compounds and have been shown to lower cardiometabolic risk. We examined the effects of two dietary achievable doses of strawberries on glycemic control and lipid profiles in obese adults with elevated serum LDL cholesterol (LDL-C). Methods: In this 14-week randomized controlled crossover study, participants were assigned to one of the three arms for four weeks separated by a one-week washout period: control...

Long-term cigarette smoke exposure dysregulates pulmonary T cell response and IFN-γ protection to influenza virus in mouse

3 months 1 week ago
Wenxin Wu
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that prior CS exposure caused a biphasic T cell and IFN-γ response to subsequent infection with influenza in the lung. Specifically, the number of IAV antigen-specific T cells on day 10 was greatly increased by CS exposure even though CS decreased the number of the same group of cells on day 7. The result suggested that CS affected the kinetics of the T cell response to IAV, which was suppressed at an early stage and exaggerated at a later stage. This study...

Seed-mediated RNA interference of androgen signaling and survival networks induces cell death in prostate cancer cells

3 months 2 weeks ago
Joshua M Corbin
Resistance to anti-androgen therapy in prostate cancer (PCa) is often driven by genetic and epigenetic aberrations in the androgen receptor (AR) and coregulators that maintain androgen signaling activity. We show that specific small RNAs downregulate expression of multiple essential and androgen receptor-coregulatory genes, leading to potent androgen signaling inhibition and PCa cell death. Expression of different short hairpin/small interfering RNAs (sh-/siRNAs) designed to target TMEFF2...
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