Drs. Rasmussen and Scofield reply

4 days 7 hours ago
Astrid Rasmussen
The cardinal laboratory/pathological features of Sjögren syndrome (SS) are autoantibodies (anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB) and lymphocytic infiltrate of the salivary glands. The lymphocytic infiltrate is graded by the focus score (FS) 1, 2, which is the number of foci with ≥ 50 lymphocytes per 4 mm² Much has been published about the clinical and laboratory differences found among Sjögren patients with and without autoantibodies, with the presence of anti-Ro generally associated with more severe...

Drs. Rasmussen and Scofield reply

4 days 7 hours ago
Astrid Rasmussen
Cafaro and colleagues¹ have studied focus score (FS)-negative (that is, < 1 focus of ≥ 50 lymphocytes per 4 mm²) to FS-positive (≥ 1 focus per 4 mm²) Sjögren syndrome (SS) patients² in a manner similar to our recent study³ As in our study, there was evidence of B cell hyperreactivity among those subjects with a positive minor salivary gland biopsy, although the details of this finding varied between the 2 studies.

Performance and mechanisms of immobilization remediation for Cd contaminated water and soil by hydroxy ferric combined acid-base modified sepiolite (HyFe/ABsep)

5 days 7 hours ago
Sha Xie
In order to simultaneously improve the remediation capability of Cd contaminated water and soil, hydroxy iron-ABsep (HyFe/ABsep) was synthesized by a two-step modified (acid-base composite treatment, and hydroxy group was by using NaOH and Fe (NO(3))(3)·9H(2)O). Results showed that HyFe/ABsep had developed pores and a rougher surface morphology, and the salt-soluble ion content was increased, surface-loaded iron species was mainly composed of FeOOH. Adsorption process of Cd^(2+) by HyFe/ABsep...

PFAS concentrations in soils: Background levels versus contaminated sites

5 days 7 hours ago
Mark L Brusseau
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are contaminants of critical concern due to their persistence, widespread distribution in the environment, and potential human-health impacts. In this work, published studies of PFAS concentrations in soils were compiled from the literature. These data were combined with results obtained from a large curated database of PFAS soil concentrations for contaminated sites. In aggregate, the compiled data set comprises >30,000 samples collected from >2500...

Development and transferability of ultrafine particle land use regression models in London

5 days 7 hours ago
Zhenchun Yang
Due to a lack of routine monitoring, bespoke measurements are required to develop ultrafine particle (UFP) land use regression (LUR) models, which is especially challenging in megacities due to their large area. As an alternative, for London, we developed separate models for three urban residential areas, models combining two areas, and models using all three areas. Models were developed against annual mean ultrafine particle count cm^(-3) estimated from repeated 30-min fixed-site measurements,...

Community structure and functional diversity of the plastisphere in aquaculture waters: Does plastic color matter?

5 days 7 hours ago
Bin Wen
Microplastics (MPs) serve as a niche for colonization of biofilm-forming microorganisms, termed as plastisphere. Distinct microbial assemblages between MPs and surrounding waters have been well reported, but little is known about driving factors affecting biofilm development on plastic surfaces. Here, to investigate the influence of plastic colors on microbial assemblages, we performed a biofilm incubation experiment, in an aquaculture pond, using MPs in colors (blue, yellow and transparent)...

Probabilistic assessment of spatial heterogeneity of natural background concentrations in large-scale groundwater bodies through Functional Geostatistics

5 days 7 hours ago
L Guadagnini
We propose and exemplify a framework to assess Natural Background Levels (NBLs) of target chemical species in large-scale groundwater bodies based on the context of Object Oriented Spatial Statistics. The approach enables one to fully exploit the richness of the information content embedded in the probability density function (PDF) of the variables of interest, as estimated from historical records of chemical observations. As such, the population of the entire distribution functions of NBL...

Hyperspectral field spectroscopy and SENTINEL-2 Multispectral data for minerals with high pollution potential content estimation and mapping

5 days 7 hours ago
Belgacem Dkhala
Mining in Tunisia generates a large amount of tailings charged with toxic minerals. As these tailings have a wide spread distribution, it is important to characterize and estimate their impact on soil contamination. This study examines the potential of field hyperspectral spectroscopy and SENTINEL-2 Multispectral data in estimating and mapping seven minerals content, including three toxic minerals (fluorite, barite and sphalerite), within soils around Hammam Zriba mine in Northen Tunisia. 69...

Building a quality index for soils impacted by proximity to an industrial complex using statistical and data-mining methods

5 days 7 hours ago
Krystyna Ciarkowska
Differences in soil quality indices, in terms of the inherent properties of loess parent material and the potential for Zn, Pb and Cd contamination from the emissions of an adjacent large industrial complex, were determined. A set of independent variables was established for the soils, using principal component analysis (PCA) and a random forest (RF) method. The quality indices of 140 topsoil samples from the environs of an industrial complex were compared with those of reference soils taken...

Evaluation of potential ecological risk, possible sources and controlling factors of heavy metals in surface sediment of Caohai Wetland, China

5 days 7 hours ago
Pinhua Xia
Caohai, a plateau wetland in Southwest China, is a national nature reserve providing protection for a variety of threatened and endangered species of migrant birds (e.g., the black-necked crane Grus nigricollis). It has been experiencing the increasing environmental problems with heavy metals due to anthropogenic activities. However, the contamination of heavy metals in different habitats is unclear. Surface sediment samples from these habitats were thus collected to analyze the distribution...

Microfluidic-based fluorescent electronic eye with CdTe/CdS core-shell quantum dots for trace detection of cadmium ions

5 days 7 hours ago
Xinyi Wang
Cadmium ions (Cd^(2+)) greatly threat human health and the environment due to its extremely severe toxicity. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to establish a sensitive and portable platform for monitoring Cd^(2+) on site. In this work, a novel microfluidic-based fluorescent electronic eye (E-eye) combined with tetrasodium iminodisuccinate (IDS)-etched CdTe/CdS quantum dots (QDs) was developed for portable and sensitive detection of trace Cd^(2+) in water environment. The fluorescent E-eye...

Constructing bi-plots for random forest: Tutorial

5 days 7 hours ago
Lionel Blanchet
Current technological developments have allowed for a significant increase and availability of data. Consequently, this has opened enormous opportunities for the machine learning and data science field, translating into the development of new algorithms in a wide range of applications in medical, biomedical, daily-life, and national security areas. Ensemble techniques are among the pillars of the machine learning field, and they can be defined as approaches in which multiple, complex,...

Highly sensitive determination of mercury by improved liquid cathode glow discharge with the addition of chemical modifiers

5 days 7 hours ago
Jie Yu
The sample introduction system of early miniaturized liquid cathode glow discharge (LCGD) was improved, and then LCGD was used as an excitation source of atomic emission spectrometry (AES) for the detection of mercury in water samples. The effects of chemical modifiers, such as ionic surfactants and low molecular weight organic substances, on emission intensities of Hg were investigated. The results showed that the addition of 4% methanol and 0.15% hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) can...

Ultrasensitive detection of Cr(VI) (Cr<sub>2</sub>O<sub>7</sub><sup>2-</sup>/CrO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup>) ions in water environment with a fluorescent sensor based on metal-organic frameworks combined with sulfur quantum dots

5 days 7 hours ago
Yanqiu Zhang
Accurate, simple and quick detection methods for Cr(VI) detection are urgently needed for water quality monitoring. Herein, a novel and facile method of detecting Cr(VI) (Cr(2)O(7)^(2-)/CrO(4)^(2-)) ions is developed via the fluorescent detection technology based on metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) doped with sulfur quantum dots (SQDs) (SQDs@UiO-66-NH(2)). The blue-light-emitting SQDs@UiO-66-NH(2) composites exhibit excellent fluorescent properties in water environment with high quantum yield...

Solid-phase colorimetric sensing probe for bromide based on a tough hydrogel embedded with silver nanoprisms

5 days 7 hours ago
Sang Heon Kim
Sharp-tipped anisotropic silver (Ag) nanostructures are attracting increasing attention because of their unusual optical properties. However, the sharp tips make such nanostructures thermodynamically unstable; thus, they have been considered unsuitable for use in colorimetric sensing because of their tendency to aggregate or transform in a solution state. In the present study, a colorimetric sensing platform for detecting bromide (Br^(-)) in an aqueous medium was developed. The platform is based...

Simultaneous optical and infrared thermal imaging of isotachophoresis

5 days 7 hours ago
Alexandros Terzis
Joule heating in isotachophoresis (ITP) can limit minimum assay times and efforts to scale up processed sample volumes. Despite its significance, the dynamics of Joule heating on spatiotemporal temperature fields in ITP systems have not been investigated. We here present novel measurements of spatiotemporal temperature and electromigration fields in ITP. To achieve this, we obtain simultaneous and registered optical and infrared thermal images of the ITP process. We conduct a series of...

Electrochemically synthesized NiFe layered double hydroxide modified Cu(OH)<sub>2</sub> needle-shaped nanoarrays: A novel sorbent for thin-film solid phase microextraction of antifungal drugs

5 days 7 hours ago
Ailin Barabi
Herein, we applied a simple electrosynthesis process to deposit nickel-iron layered double hydroxides (NiFe LDH) on the surface of copper hydroxide (Cu(OH)(2)) needle-shaped nanoarrays and introduce a new sorbent for thin-film solid phase microextraction (TF-SPME). For this purpose, the nanoarrays were grown via electrochemical anodization on a copper foil's surface and then modified with NiFe LDH. The synthesized sorbent was characterized by field emission-scanning electron microscopy,...

Quasi-planar B<sub>36</sub> boron cluster: a new potential basis for ammonia detection

1 week 3 days ago
Zhongqu Wang
Detection of NH(3) at a trace level is nowadays of great importance. Here, we investigate the reactivity and sensitivity of a B(36) borophene toward NH(3) gas employing DFT calculations. The energetic results point out that the adsorption process strongly depends on the orientation of NH(3) relative to the B(36) sheet. An NH(3) molecule preferentially interacts via its N-head with a B atom of the B(36) with a change of enthalpy of - 90.5 kJ/mol at room temperature and 1 atm. Mulliken charges...

Knowledge about Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) and its professional repercussions among Brazilian endodontists

1 week 4 days ago
George Táccio de Miranda Candeiro
The aim of this study was to assess Brazilian endodontists' level of knowledge about the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and examine its professional repercussions. The link to the online survey that was created for this study was shared with Brazilian endodontists through social networking applications. The questionnaire contained questions that pertained to COVID-19 and its impact on dental practice. The collected data were analyzed using t-test, chi-square analysis, and analysis of variance,...
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